The two mysteries and magical words "Jantar Mantar" chanting all over in India by several people in their early days to complete their magical wishes but these two words is somewhat more than its actual meaning. The words "Jantar Mantar" accurately indicate devices for calculating the heaven’s harmony. Here in the Pink City - Jaipur there are lots of temples, palaces, ponds and gardens all they have their significance in their place but the excessive observatory recognized by the emperor Sawai Jai Singh have global importance. The Jantar Mantar holds different type of astrological and architectural instruments that have trapped the interests of historians, architects and astronomers of the whole world. It is measured to be one of the biggest observatories ever prepared.
Who Invent Jantar Mantar?
In the starting of 18th century Jaipur city’s Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II constructed five models of Jantar Mantar in all in Jaipur, New Delhi, Mathura, Varanasi and Ujjain. They were finished between the periods of 1724 to 1735. The observatory Jantar Mantar was build between the periods of 1728 to 1734. It is the biggest observatories among five and most excellent preserved and still working in a good condition. It is a wonderful collection of 19 astronomical architectural instruments. It features biggest stone sundial of the world know by the name of Smarat Yantra, and is World heritage site of UNESCO. The only observatory in city Mathura has almost vanished today.
Why Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II build Jantar Mantar?
This well known observatory was constructed in 1734 for the revision of time and space. The planner of the Jantar Mantar Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh was a gleaming star and grand scholar of their subjects such as Indian politics and astronomy. He is the leader of Amber and initiator of Jaipur, a wonderful ruler and builder and excellent astronomer. He was specially made by Emperor Muhammad Shah, to create corrections in the tables and to confirm the information, already accessible on the positions of planets.
The major objectives of Jai Singh II systematic program were to process the ancient Islamic zij tables, to determine the correct hour at incessantly and to precisely characterize the calendar. One more objective was to relate the cosmological idea coming from the Ptolemaic one as per upon astronomical truths to astrological forecast both individual and social. Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh is responsive of Hindu culture of astronomical information and he even studies the entire astronomy related books and information of Islamic, Persian and Europeans civilization and gathers the entire information and adopts the facts. That assists him for making observatory. For gathering information Sawai Jai Singh II sent their envoys to different parts of the whole world. The representatives came back with astronomical and manuals tables besides lots of data on the proceedings made in the astronomy’s fields. Tables of La Hires were the only of these manuals. The Jantar mantar is even known by the renewal version of the observatory of the emperor Ulugh Beg leader of Samarkand from the period of 1339 to 1449 at Uzbekistan. Though, it was more precise compare to observatory of Ulugh Beg. Where observatory of Ulugh begs is known as mistake of its time.
It took more than the period of seven years to complete the task. He constructed the first observatory of stone in 1724 in Delhi. The observatory of Rajasthan in Jaipur was constructed in 1728 to 1734. The emperor Sawai Jai Singh constructed three more observatories in different places. The observatory of Jaipur is the biggest and more correct compare to others.
Jantar mantar is the very accurate and best sealed great observatory site constructed in the Ptolemaic tradition. It offers an outstanding indication of the technical and scientific conceptions of the grand observatory devised in the world of medieval.
Jantar Mantar – the Famous Observatory
Jantar mantar is situated close to Hawa Mahal and City Palace of Jaipur. It is set of 19 geometric instruments for calculating time and space for astronomy. It is even utilized for watching the orbits nearby the Sun. Even as the earlier observatory such as King Ulugh Beg was constructed from metal but it was less precise and not utilized for long time. Therefore, Sawai Jai Singh II make a plan to build the instruments observatory with marble and stone as life of stone is longer compare to metal and doesn’t corrosion easily. The devices allow the viewers to observe the positions of astronomical with the bare eye. A few of the instruments are constructed from bronze.
Jantar Mantar is built in 18,700 square area meters. The wonderful observatory restored more than a few times throughout these years mainly in 1902 in British rule and even in 2006 and changed few of the genuine materials of structure with different ones. Still, it is in use nowadays, both for calculation and teaching purposes and keeps extra-ordinary correctness. A few of the devices uses are still obscurity for viewers and how they can use them and how precise predication they provided in early time. And few of the devices are biggest in the whole world. Now it is part of Rajasthan’s National monument and even UNASCO’s part as a site of world heritage. A few of the devices used in Jantar mantar observatory Jaipur are discussed below:
Vrihat Smarat Yantra (Sundial)
It is a sundial which can provide the local time to an accurateness of 2 seconds. Reinstated A.D. 1901 confirmed by jotshi Gokul chand bhawan for checking time, hour angle and declination of the blissful bodies. It is the biggest sundial ever constructed with a gnomon arm 22.6 meter high and biggest quadrants of 15.5 meter radius. The shade of the triangle wall is situated in the north-south route with an angle equivalent to the latitude of this place, which move equal distances in equal intervals on the eastern and western face quadrants. This type of movement is standardized to check the local time. The quadrants western and eastern are separated into 6 hours each one, for the sunrise and the afternoon parts correspondingly. Every hour is separated in 15 minutes and afterward in the parts of 1 minute. The part of minute has ten subsections each one of 6 seconds that once more has three small sections of each 2 seconds. The factor of correction that is to be extra for the day is showed to convert the obtained time from this device to the clock time.
Small samrat yantra
This yantra is a sundial which can provide you the time to an accurateness of 20 seconds. The triangular shadow of the yantra, declining on the quadrants side of eastern & western, notifies the local time. The wall, with the inside angle of the wall is place precisely in the north-south track. The triangular shadow moves equivalent distances in equivalent time intervals on the quadrants. This type of movement is calibrated to check the current time. The quadrants of western & eastern are separated into subsections, each of the periods of 6 hours, for the time of morning and the segments of afternoon respectively. Every hour is further separated into the period of 5 minutes and 1 minute parts, and each 1 minute partition is sub-sectioned into 3 parts all of 20 seconds. The factor of correction, to be added to change the sundial time to the time of clock for the day is showed close to the instrument.
Zodiacal circle (Rasivalaya)
These are instruments for calculating the celestial longitude and latitude of the celestial bodies. There are total 12 instruments that symbolize the 12 zodiac signs, one for each dimension to be done once the corresponding zodiac sign transits the meridian.
Fixed in 1901 A.D. symbol of half celestial sphere rim and it is showing horizon for searching all the situations of the divine bodies.
It has two round plates, facing south and north direction that are its dials. The plate’s wall is inclined in the direction of the south at such a viewpoint that the device keeps parallel to the Earths equator plane.
It is a ring type device that calculates the worldwide co-ordinates of declination and the angle of hour of a celestial object.
It is a cylindrical device which has a simple technique of checking the azimuth of a celestial thing. Azimuth or Digamsa of a celestial thing is the comparative angular point of the object calculated east words beginning from the north direction.
It can calculate the local co-ordinates of elevation and azimuth of a space thing.
It is tested by expert. It offers the azimuth and altitude of the sun and of the divine bodies.
The utilization of this device is to check the distance and declination from the equinox and ecliptic of the stars and sun.
It is a device that is planned to check the celestial longitude and celestial latitude of an entity in the sky. It is even utilized for checking solar sun sign in daytime.
It is an edition of an astrolabe a medieval device for the calculation of time and the situations of celestial things.
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